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Biserica Reformata de pe Ulita Lupilor din Cluj Napoca


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cautare obiective turistice

Cautare Obiective


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Biserica Reformata de pe Ulita Lupilor - Cluj

Biserica Reformata-Calvina de pe strada Kogalniceanu din Cluj-Napoca (in maghiara Farkas utcai reformatus templom, in germana Reformierte Kirche in der Wolfsgasse) din imediata apropiere a bastionului Croitorilor este unul din cele mai valoroase edificii gotice din Transilvania, ridicat intre 1486-1516. Biserica mai este cunoscuta si sub numele de Biserica Reformata Centrala sau Biserica Reformata de pe Ulita Lupilor. Numele Ulitei Lupilor, una din cele mai vechi strazi ale Clujului, este mentionat in documentele medievale ca Platea Luporum. Dupa unirea Transilvaniei cu Romania numele Ulitei Lupilor a fost schimbat in "strada Mihail Kogalniceanu", care a ramas pana in prezent denumirea oficiala a strazii.

Biserica a ramas un monument unic datorita vechimii si dimensiunilor sale, fiind cea mai mare constructie gotica de tip sala (cu o singura nava) din Transilvania si din sud-estul Europei. In 1603 calatorul Giovanni Argenti o descria drept cea mai frumoasa din toata Transilvania. Are 34 m lungime si 15 latime. Inaltimea peretilor atinge 19 m. Biserica a fost cladita dintr-o singura nava, in spiritul franciscanilor, care nu doreau stalpi de sustinere sau prea multe ornamente, astfel incat credinciosilor sa nu le fie perturbata atentia de nimic. Mobilierul apartine secolului XV, fiind realizat de mai multi mesteri bistriteni. Orga in stil rococco este din 1766 si este a doua orga ca marime dupa cea a Bisericii Negre din Brasov.
In 1651 a fost construit clastrul, in care a functionat un colegiu universitar condus de eruditul Janos Apaczai Csere. Colegiul avea dreptul de a acorda diplome care erau echivalente celor acordate de alte academii italiene, spaniole, franceze sau germane. La acest colegiu a studiat si Nicolae Patrascu, fiu al lui Mihai Viteazul.
Pe peretii bisericii se afla cea mai bogata colectie de blazoane si steme din Romania apartinand unor nobili transilvaneni, unii dintre ei, cum ar fi principii Apafi I si II fiind de altfel inmormantati aici. Colectia a fost realizata de preotul Herepei Gergely la sfarsitul secolului XIX. In extremitatea estica a lacasului este dispus un monument dedicat ultimului voievod al Transilvaniei, Mihai Apafi I, realizat de Karoly Kos in 1942.
In fata edificiului a fost dispusa o copie de bronz a statuii ecvestre a Sf. Gheorghe ucigand balaurul. Originalul realizat in 1373, de sculptorii clujeni Gheorghe si Martin, la comanda lui Carol al IV-lea, se afla in palatul regal Hradciani din Praga.
Din anul 1960 in biserica sunt programate cu regularitate concerte de orga, celebre pentru frumusetea lor.


Ridicarea

Primul document referitor la inaltarea lacasului de cult este data 9 septembrie 1486. Atunci primarul Clujului, Szabo Ambrus si consiliul orasului decid sa doneze calugarilor franciscani un teren aflat in imediata apropiere a bastionului croitorilor pentru a fi ridicata o biserica si o manastire. Constructia propriu-zisa a bisericii si manastirii incepe in 1487 sub supravegherea calugarilor franciscani minoriti, condusi de catre calugarul Ioan (trimis special la Cluj pentru lucrare) si cu sustinerea regelui Matia Corvin[1] si, dupa moartea acestuia, constructia este continuata cu sprijinul regelui Vladislav al II-lea al Ungariei din veniturile obtinute de mineritul sarii. Conform unui document al regelui Matia Corvin, document datat in anul 1490, coordonarea economica a lucrarilor a fost incredintata cancelarului pentru mineritul sarii din Ardeal.
Biserica a fost finalizata in anul 1510. Avand aspectul unui castel medieval (motiv pentru care mai este denumita si Biserica-Cetate), cu o constructie puritana, initial tencuita, avand numai pietrele de talie de pe margini aparente. Aspectul de astazi se datoreaza restaurarilor, si arata zidaria originala formata din pietre imense dispuse asimetric, edificiul oglindeste trasaturile stilului gotic tarziu.

sursa: http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biserica_Reformat%C4%83_de_pe_Uli%C8%9Ba_Lupilor



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