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Biserica Sfantul Mihail din Cluj Napoca


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cautare obiective turistice

Cautare Obiective


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Biserica Sfantul Mihail - Cluj

Biserica Romano-Catolica Sfantul Mihail (in maghiara Kolozsvari Szent Mihaly-templom, in germana Klausenburger Michaelskirche) este unul dintre cele mai reprezentative monumente ale arhitecturii gotice din Transilvania. Edificiul a fost ridicat in Piata Centrala din Cluj si se numara printre monumentele emblematice ale orasului.
Biserica Sf. Mihail din Cluj este considerata a fi unul dintre cele mai impozante edificii gotice din Romania, cu 70 de metri lungime si o inaltime maxima de 80 de metri.

Edificiul este o biserica cu altar alungit, boltit in cruce pe ogive si flancat de altare laterale. Bolta, vitraliile si sculpturile se remarca printr-o maretie surprinzatoare pentru acea vreme, intalnite mai ales in catedralele vestice. Deasupra portii de intrare se afla un blazon reprezentand pe Sfantul Mihail, sub el aflandu-se stema Sfantului Imperiu Roman, cea a Regatului Ungar si a Regatului Boemiei. Existenta lor se explica prin faptul ca Sigismund de Luxemburg (1387-1437), sub domnia caruia se pare ca s-a finalizat edificiul, era imparat roman si, in acelasi timp, rege al Ungariei si al Boemiei.
Tocul usei sacristiei, sculptura renascentista in piatra, dateaza din 1528, fiind comandat la acea vreme de parohul bisericii, Johannes Klein, si realizat de catre un mester german. Altarul neogotic, opera a mesterului tamplar Lajos Back, a fost premiat la Expozitia Mondiala din 1873. In centrul altarului este sculptata Fecioara Maria, alaturi de Sf. Stefan si Sf. Ladislau. Majoritatea frescelor din secolul XIV-XV nu au mai rezistat trecerii timpului si a interventiei oamenilor. O mare parte dintre ele au fost deteriorate pe parcursul diverselor reforme religioase, pentru a corespunde noilor idei. Biserica a fost decorata cu numeroase statuete si reliefuri, din care au mai ramas insa extrem de putine, marea lor majoritate fiind distruse.
Diferitele restaurari ale bisericii au aratat mai multe picturi murale executate in prima parte a secolului al XV-lea. O ultima restaurare a bisericii a avut loc intre anii 1957-1960, moment la care au fost readuse la viata o parte din picturile secolelor XIV-XV.


Considerente istorice

Printr-un act eliberat la 19 august 1316, Carol Robert de Anjou acorda o serie de privilegii si libertati Clujului, printre care era si dreptul orasului de a-si alege liber preotul si parohul. Libertate care trebuia materializata prin ridicarea unei biserici parohiale.
Biserica a fost inaltata pe un teren care servise drept cimitir si unde existase o capela dedicata Sf. Iacob.[1] Au ramas foarte putine date referitoare la ridicarea edificiului. Principalul document pastrat este unul eliberat de curtea papala de la Avignon, din ianuarie 1349, prin care li se iertau pacatele celor care ar ajuta financiar constructia lacasului. Constructia s-a desfasurat in doua faze: prima a inceput in anul 1316 si a fost finalizata in 1390, urmata de o a doua faza intre 1410-1487. In anul 1390 a fost finalizat si altarul.
Au fost proiectate doua turnuri pentru fatada principala, dar nu a fost ridicat decat cel de nord-vest intre 1511-1543. In 1697, turnul este distrus ca urmare a unui incendiu si reconstruit in stil baroc in 1744. Acesta a trebuit demolat insa in 1763, dupa ce un cutremur il deteriorase foarte mult, aflandu-se in pericol de prabusire. In 1837, s-a inceput ridicarea actualului turn cu ceas, in stilul neogotic, de pe fatada de nord, fiind terminat in 1860. Turnul a ramas si astazi ca cel mai inalt turn de biserica din Romania.
In perioada reformei protestante edificiul a deservit pe rand diverse comunitati religioase: astfel, in perioada 1545-1558, a fost biserica luterana, intre 1558 si 1566 a devenit calvinista, iar din 1566 a devenit biserica unitariana, ramanand astfel pentru o perioada de 150 de ani, pana cand a fost atribuita cu forta comunitatii romano-catolice, ca urmare a Contrareformei. Dupa revenirea la catolici, biserica a fost restaurata sub influenta barocului de catre artistii Johannes Nachtigall si Anton Schuchbauer, sub indrumarea parohului Janos Biro. Tot atunci cei doi artisti au realizat amvonul.
De-a lungul vremii, edificiul a fost martor la diverse momente importante: aici a fost botezat Matia Corvin, regina Izabella a predat in lacas insemnele regale trimisilor imparatului Ferdinand I. Aici au fost investiti principi ai Transilvaniei Gabriel Bethlen, Sigismund Rakoczi, Sigismund Bathory si Gabriel Bathory.
Incepand cu secolul al XVIII-lea, in jurul bisericii se contruiesc o serie de cladiri, pravalii, pe care parohia le inchiria asigurandu-si in acest fel un venit frumusel. Odata cu sistematizarea Pietei Centrale, in 1890, aceste cladiri au fost demolate, sub presiunea opiniei publice, pentru a nu mai ascunde biserica intre ele. Tot acum portalul baroc din fata bisericii a fost mutat in fata Bisericii Sf. Petru si Pavel. In schimb, parohia a fost despagubita cu unele terenuri din zona centrala a orasului, terenuri pe care biserica a ridicat cele 2 cladiri in oglinda de pe actuala strada Iuliu Maniu.

sursa: http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biserica_Sf%C3%A2ntul_Mihail_din_Cluj

 



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